Student representatives Eleanor Shipton Eleanor is a postgraduate representative for the Centre for Victorian Studies.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
December Learn how and when to remove this template message Inbusinessman Francis Cabot Lowell formed a company, the Boston Manufacturing Companyand built a textile mill next to the Charles River in WalthamMassachusetts. Unlike the earlier Rhode Island Systemwhere only carding and spinning were done in a factory while the weaving was often put out to neighboring farms to be done by hand, the Waltham mill was the first integrated mill in the United States, transforming raw cotton into cotton cloth in one building.
Lowell's business associates, looking to expand the Waltham textile operations, purchased land around the Pawtucket Falls on the Merrimack River in East Chelmsford. Incorporated as the Town of Lowell inbythe textile mills employed almost 8, workers — mostly women between the ages of 15 and New, large scale machinery, which had come to dominate the production of cloth bywas being rapidly developed in lockstep with the equally new ways of organizing workers for mass production.
Together, these mutually reinforcing technological and social changes produced staggering increases: Most corporations recorded similarly high profits during this period. Work and living environment[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.
December Learn how and when to remove this template message The social position of the factory girls had been degraded considerably in France and England. In her autobiography, Harriet Hanson Robinson who worked in the Lowell mills from — suggests that "It was to overcome this prejudice that such high wages had been offered to women that they might be induced to become mill girls, in spite of the opprobrium that still clung to this degrading occupation.
A few girls who came with their mothers or older sisters were as young as ten years old, some were middle-aged, but the average age was about They were paired with more experienced women, who trained them in the ways of the factory. Employees worked from 5: The noise of the machines was described by one worker as "something frightful and infernal", and although the rooms were hot, windows were often kept closed during the summer so that conditions for thread work remained optimal.
The air, meanwhile, was filled with particles of thread and cloth. A curfew of About 26 women lived in each boarding house, with up to six sharing a bedroom.
The houses were often run by widows who kept a close eye on the workers and made church attendance mandatory for all of the girls. However, half-days and short paid vacations were possible due to the nature of the piece-work; one girl would work the machines of another in addition to her own such that no wages would be lost.
These close quarters fostered community as well as resentment. Newcomers were mentored by older women in areas such as dress, speech, behavior, and the general ways of the community. The women became very close with one another due to the extensive time they spent together both during work and after work when they would engage in cultural activities, such as music and literature.
The Handbook to Lowell noted that the company would "not employ anyone who is habitually absent from public worship on the Sabbath, or known to be guilty of immorality".The Industrial Revolution was the beginning for women’s independence which changed the lives of women when factories began to hire women.
Women were often paid less than men but were expected to perform the same type of work (Tilly, ). Susan Zlotnick, Women, Writing and the Industrial Revolution () [one copy on three-day loan] The Library also has the resource Women Writers Online.
Assessment. Women, Writing, and the Industrial Revolution (paperback). The industrial revolution in nineteenth-century England disrupted traditional ways of life.
Condemning these transformations, the male writers who explored the brave new world of Victorian industrialism looked longingly to an idealized past. However, British women writers . The Cambridge Companion to Victorian Women's Writing brings together chapters by leading scholars to provide innovative and comprehensive coverage of Victorian women writers' careers and literary achievements.
Susan Zlotnick: Women, writing and the industrial revolution Josephine M. Guy. Reports. The Society's Year, Janet Allan The London Conference Val Salisbury The London and South-East Group Dudley Barlow The South-West of England Group Rosemary Marshall The Gaskell Society of Japan Yuriko Yamawaki Gaskell Studies in Italy Mariaconcetta.
The book boldly claims that an understanding of the Industrial Revolution requires engagement with the figure of the 'rough diamond', a person of worth and character, Price: $