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History[ edit ] Modern Psychological evaluation has been around for roughly years, with roots that stem as far back as B. The first tests focused on aptitude. Eventually scientists tried to gauge mental processes in patients with brain damage, then children with special needs.
Ancient psychological evaluation[ edit ] Earliest accounts of evaluation are seen as far back as B. These rudimentary tests were developed over time until A.
As a preliminary evaluation for anyone seeking public office, candidates were required to spend one day and one night in a small space composing essays and writing poetry over assigned topics. The Chinese failure to validate their selection procedures, along with widespread discontent over such grueling processes, resulted in the eventual abolishment of the practice by royal decree.
This test was also not favorable, as it took over hours to administer. However, this influenced Wilhelm Wundtwho had the first psychological laboratory in Germany.
His tests were shorter, but used similar techniques. Wundt also measured mental processes and acknowledged the fact that there are individual differences between people. Frances Galton established the first tests in London for measuring IQ. He tested thousands of people, examining their physical characteristics as a basis for his results and many of the records remain today.
His studies led to his paper "Mental Tests and Measurements" ,one of the most famous writings on psychological evaluation. He also coined the term "mental test" in this paper. As the s began, Alfred Binet was also studying evaluation.
However, he was more interested in distinguishing children with special needs from their peers after he could not prove in his other research that magnets could cure hysteria. He did his research in France, with the help of Theodore Simon.
They created a list of questions that were used to determine if children would receive regular instruction, or would participate in special education programs.
Their battery was continually revised and developed, until when the Binet-Simon questionnaire was finalized for different age levels. After Binet's death, intelligence testing was further studied by Charles Spearman. He theorized that intelligence was made up of several different subcategories, which were all interrelated.
He combined all the factors together to form a general intelligence, which he abbreviated as "g". He believed that children of different ages should be compared to their peers to determine their mental age in relation to their chronological age. Lewis Terman combined the Binet-Simon questionnaire with the intelligence quotient and the result was the standard test we use today, with an average score of Sylvester standardized the first non-verbal psychological test.
In this particular test, participants fit different shaped blocks into their respective slots on a Seguin form board.
In his tests, were a simple wooden puzzle as well as digit-symbol substitution test where each participant saw digits paired up with a particular symbol, they were then shown the digits and had to write in the symbol that was associated with it.
Yerkes convinced the government that they should be testing all of the recruits they were receiving into the Army. The results of the tests could be used to make sure that the "mentally incompetent" and "mentally exceptional" were assigned to appropriate jobs.
Yerkes and his colleagues developed the Army Alpha and Army Beta tests to use on all new recruits. After seeing the success of the Army standardized tests, college administration quickly picked up on the idea of group testing to decide entrance into their institutions.
The College Entrance Examination Board was created to test applicants to colleges across the nation. Inthey developed tests that were no longer essay tests that were very open to interpretation, but now were objective tests that were also the first to be scored by machine.
In informal evaluation, assessments are based on unstructured, free-flowing interviews or observations that allow both the patient and the clinician to guide the content. Both of these methods have their pros and cons.
A highly unstructured interview and informal observations provide key findings about the patient that are both efficient and effective. A potential issue with an unstructured, informal approach is the clinician may overlook certain areas of functioning or not notice them at all.
The highly structured interview, although very precise, can cause the clinician to make the mistake of focusing a specific answer to a specific question without considering the response in terms of a broader scope or life context.Cryonics The Latest.
Tim Urban wrote a remarkably good article on cryonics, "Why Cryonics Makes Sense".In it, he says "At the beginning of my research, my question was, “Is cryonics an okay thing to . Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
What does critically evaluating the literature mean? Asking the ‘whys’ and ‘hows’, not the ‘whats’ This means being analytical, not just descriptive.
Critical Issues Forum. The Critical Issues Forum is a series of occasional reports addressing progessive racial justice issues in philanthropy. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Many students find essay writing to be an especially daunting task. Depending on the essay topic, research can take anywhere from a few hours to several days and .