Scandals whether in politics academia or other

In a situation of increasing media monopolization and unclear media ownership, the importance of independent sources of information was acknowledged by all protesters.

Scandals whether in politics academia or other

There were numerous unsubstantiated claims that the family was of Jewish origin. These underground rumours were propagated by, among others, Giuliano della Rovereand the family was frequently described as marranos by political opponents. The rumours have persisted in popular culture for centuries, listed in the Semi-Gotha of Alfons de Borja was a professor of law at the University of Lleidathen a diplomat for the Kings of Aragon before becoming a cardinal.

At an advanced age, he was elected Pope Callixtus III in as a compromise candidate and reigned as Pope for just 3 years. He was elected Pope intaking the regnal name Alexander VI. While a cardinal, he maintained a long-term illicit relationship with Vannozza dei Cattaneiwith whom he had four children: Giovanni ; Cesare ; Lucrezia ; and Gioffre.

Rodrigo also had children by other women, including one daughter with his mistress, Giulia Farnese. As Alexander VI, Rodrigo was recognized as a skilled politician and diplomat, but was widely criticized during his reign for his over-spending, sale of Church offices simonylasciviousness, and nepotism.

As Pope, he struggled to acquire more personal and papal power and wealth, often ennobling and enriching the Borgia family directly. He appointed his son, Giovanni, as captain-general of the papal armyhis foremost military representative, and established another son, Cesare, as a cardinal.

Alexander used the marriages of his children to build alliances with powerful families in Italy and Spain.

Scandals whether in politics academia or other

At the time, the Sforza familywhich comprised the Milanese faction, was one of the most powerful in Europe, so Alexander united the two families by marrying Lucrezia to Giovanni Sforza. The " Banquet of Chestnuts " is considered one of the most disreputable balls of this kind. Johann Burchard reports that fifty courtesans were in attendance for the entertainment of the banquet guests.

Cesare Borgia, Lucrezia, Pope Alexander, and a young man holding an empty glass. The painting represents the popular view of the treacherous nature of the Borgias - the implication being that the young man cannot be sure that the wine is not poisoned.

Scandals whether in politics academia or other

He grew up to become a charming man skilled at war and politics. As soon as he graduated from the university, his father made him a cardinal. Cesare was suspected of murdering his brother Giovanni, but there is no clear evidence to confirm this.

He needed a candidate who would not threaten his plans to create his own principality in Central Italy. Cesare was then forced to support Giuliano della Rovere. The cardinal promised Cesare that he could keep all of his titles and honors.

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Later, della Rovere betrayed him and became his fiercest enemy. In order to attempt to breach the extremely strong, natural fortification of the castle, Cesare counted on a desperate surprise attack. He was killed during the battle, in which his army failed to take the castle.

Before the age of 13, she was engaged to two Spanish princes. After her father became Pope she was married to Giovanni Sforza in at the age of It is likely that Cesare had them killed as an affair would have damaged the negotiations being conducted for another marriage.

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However, this relationship did not last long either. Cesare wished to strengthen his relations with France and completely break with the Kingdom of Naples. Although the first attempt at murder did not succeed, Alfonso was eventually strangled in his own quarters.

After her father died inshe lived a life of freedom in Ferrara with her husband and children. She died in10 days after the birth and death of her last child, Isabella Maria. She was buried in a tomb with Isabella and Alfonso. Lucrezia was rumored to be a notorious poisoner and she became famous for her skill at political intrigue.

However, recently historians have started to look at her in a more sympathetic is a platform for academics to share research papers. A consideration of the basic problems of civil procedure designed to acquaint students with the fundamental stages and concerns of litigation, e.g., jurisdiction, pleading, discovery, trial, choice of law, and multiparty actions.

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