Related Pages How old is algebra?
A - C[ edit ] All the modern higher mathematics is based on a calculus of operations, on laws of thought. All mathematics, from the first, was so in reality; but the evolvers of the modern higher calculus have known that it is so.
Therefore elementary teachers who, at the present day, persist in thinking about algebra and arithmetic as dealing with laws of number, and about geometry as dealing with laws of surface and solid content, are doing the best that in them lies to put their pupils on the wrong track for reaching in the future any true understanding of the higher algebras.
Algebras deal not with laws of number, but with such laws of the human thinking machinery as have been discovered in the course of investigations on numbers. Plane geometry deals with such laws of thought as were discovered by men intent on finding out how to measure surface; and solid geometry with such additional laws of thought as were discovered when men began to extend geometry into three dimensions.
The precision of statement and the facility of application which the rules of the calculus early afforded were in a measure responsible for the fact that mathematicians were insensible to the delicate subtleties required in the logical development They sought to establish calculus in terms of the conceptions found in traditional geometry and algebra which had been developed from spatial intuition.
BoyerThe History of the Calculus and Its Conceptual Development The most influential mathematics textbook of ancient times is easily named, for the Elements of Euclid has set the pattern in elementary geometry ever since. The most effective textbook of the medieval age is less easily designated; but a good case can be made out for the Al-jabr of Al-Khwarizmifrom which algebra arose and took its name.
Is it possible to indicate a modern textbook of comparable influence and prestige? We think only through the medium of words. D - E[ edit ] My specific A learner who has a good knowledge of the subjects just named, and who can master the present treatise, taking up elementary works on conic sections, application of algebra to geometry, and the theory of equations, as he wants them, will, I am perfectly sure, find himself able to conquer the difficulties of anything he may meet with; and need not close any book of LaplaceLagrangeLegendrePoissonFourierCauchyGaussAbelHindenburgh and his followers.
I am not aware that any work exists in which this has been avowedly attempted, and I have been the more encouraged to make the trial from observing that the objections to the theory of limits have usually been founded either upon the difficulty of the notion itself, or its unalgebraical character, and seldom or never upon anything not to be defined or not to be received in the conception of a limit Augustus De MorganThe Differential and Integral Calculus Abel did not deny that we might solve quintics using techniques other than algebraic ones of adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and extracting roots.
What Abel did do was prove that there exists no algebraic formula This situation is reminiscent of that encountered when trying to square the circlefor in both cases mathematicians are limited by the tools they can employ.
William DunhamJourney Through Genius: The Great Theorems of Mathematics The principal object of Algebra, as well as of all the other branches of the Mathematics, is to determine the value of quantities which were before unknown; and this is obtained by considering attentively the conditions given, which are always expressed in known numbers: Leonhard EulerElements of Algebra Vol.
It appears, that all magnitudes may be expressed by numbers; and that the foundation of all the Mathematical Sciences must be laid in a complete treatise on the science of Numbers, and in an accurate examination of the different possible methods of calculation.
The fundamental part of mathematics is called Analysis, or Algebra.
In Algebra then we consider only numbers, which represent quantities, without regarding the different kinds of quantity. These are the subjects of other branches of mathematics. Perhaps in ten years society may derive advantage from the curves which these visionary algebraists will have laboriously squared.
I congratulate posterity beforehand. But to tell you the truth I see nothing but a scientific extravagance in all these calculations.
That which is neither useful nor agreeable is worthless. And as for useful things, they have all been discovered; and to those which are agreeable, I hope that good taste will not admit algebra among them. Richard Aldington, letter 93 from Frederick to Voltaire May 16, In general the position as regards all such new calculi is this — That one cannot accomplish by them anything that could not be accomplished without them.
However, the advantage is, that, provided such a calculus corresponds to the inmost nature of frequent needs, anyone who masters it thoroughly is able — without the unconscious inspiration of genius which no one can command — to solve the respective problems, yea to solve them mechanically in complicated cases in which, without such aid, even genius becomes powerless.
Such conceptions unite, as it were, into an organic whole countless problems which otherwise would remain isolated and require for their separate solution more or less application of inventive genius.
And while agreeing with those who had contended that negatives and imaginaries were not properly quantities at all, I still felt dissatisfied with any view which should not give to them, from the outset, a clear interpretation and meaning It early appeared to me that these ends might be attained by our consenting to regard Algebra as being no mere Art, nor Language, nor primarily a Science of Quantity; but rather as the Science of Order in Progression.
It was, however, a part of this conception, that the progression here spoken of was understood to be continuous and unidimensional: And although the successive states of such a progression might no doubt be represented by points upon a line, yet I thought that their simple successiveness was better conceived by comparing them with moments of time, divested, however, of all reference to cause and effect; so that the "time" here considered might be said to be abstract, ideal, or pure, like that "space" which is the object of geometry.
It corresponded to the conception of simultaneity or synchronism; or, in simpler words, it represented the thought of the present in time. Of all possible answers to the general question, "When," the simplest is the answer, "Now: Wallis did not become interested in mathematics till the age of thirty-one, but devoted himself to the subject for the rest of his life.
One of the earliest and most important books on algebra ever written in English was his treatise published in It contains a brief historical sketch of the subject which is unfortunately not entirely accurate, but his treatment of the theory and practice of arithmetic and algebra has made the book a standard work for reference ever since.
Herbert Edwin Hawkes, William Arthur Luby, Frank Charles Touton, First Course in Algebra With the help of books only he [ Wilhelm Xylander ] studied the subject of Algebra, as far as was possible from what men like Cardan had written and by his own reflection, with such success that not only did he fall into what Herakleitos calledAlgebra, branch of mathematics in which arithmetical operations and formal manipulations are applied to abstract symbols rather than specific numbers.
The notion that there exists such a distinct subdiscipline of mathematics, as well as the term algebra to denote it, resulted from a slow historical development. History of Algebra Leo Corry - 3 - matics in general, until well into the XVII century, allowing the comparison of ratios of pairs of magnitudes of the same kind.
The history of algebra goes way back in time (more than years) but its importance is unparalleled by any other branch of mathematics.
Why learn the history of algebra? It is important to know the history in order to know the present status of modern day mathematics. Robert Recorde in his Whetstone of Witte () uses the variant algeber, while John Dee () affirms that algiebar, and not algebra, is the correct form, .
Algebra (Arabic: al-jebr , from الجبر al-jabr, meaning "reunion of broken parts") is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation, and quantity.
Elementary algebra is the branch that deals with solving for the operands of arithmetic equations. Modern or abstract algebra. The history of arithmetic and algebra illustrates one of the striking and curious features of the history of mathematics. Ideas that seem remarkably simple once explained were thousands of years in the making.