The objectives of OD are: In other words, these programs[ which? But broadly speaking, all organizational development programs try to achieve the following objectives: Organizational development helps in making employees align with the vision of the organization encouraging employees to solve problems instead of avoiding them strengthening inter-personal trust, cooperation, and communication for the successful achievement of organizational goals encouraging every individual to participate in the process of planning, thus making them feel responsible for the implementation of the plan creating a work atmosphere in which employees are encouraged[ by whom?
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The key components of metric fixation are the belief that it is possible — and desirable — to replace professional judgment acquired through personal experience and talent with numerical indicators of comparative performance based upon standardised data metrics ; and that the best way to motivate people within these organisations is by attaching rewards and penalties to their measured performance.
The rewards can be monetary, in the form of pay for performance, say, or reputational, in the form of college rankings, hospital ratings, surgical report cards and so on. But the most dramatic negative effect of metric fixation is its propensity to incentivise gaming: If the rate of major crimes in a district becomes the metric according to which police officers are promoted, then some officers will respond by simply not recording crimes or downgrading them from major offences to misdemeanours.
Or take the case of surgeons. When the metrics of success and failure are made public — affecting their reputation and income — some surgeons will improve their metric scores by refusing to operate on patients with more complex problems, whose surgical outcomes are more likely to be negative.
When reward is tied to measured performance, metric fixation invites just this sort of gaming. But metric fixation also leads to a variety of more subtle unintended negative consequences. These include goal displacement, which comes in many varieties: Short-termism is another negative.
In short, advancing short-term goals at the expense of long-range considerations. This problem is endemic to publicly traded corporations that sacrifice long-term research and development, and the development of their staff, to the perceived imperatives of the quarterly report.
To the debit side of the ledger must also be added the transactional costs of metrics: As the heterodox management consultants Yves Morieux and Peter Tollman note in Six Simple Rulesemployees end up working longer and harder at activities that add little to the real productiveness of their organisation, while sapping their enthusiasm.
Contrary to commonsense belief, attempts to measure productivity through performance metrics discourage initiative, innovation and risk-taking. The intelligence analysts who ultimately located Osama bin Laden worked on the problem for years.
If measured at any point, the productivity of those analysts would have been zero. Month after month, their failure rate was per cent, until they achieved success.
From the perspective of the superiors, allowing the analysts to work on the project for years involved a high degree of risk: Yet really great achievements often depend on such risks.
The source of the trouble is that when people are judged by performance metrics they are incentivised to do what the metrics measure, and what the metrics measure will be some established goal.
And experimentation includes the possibility, perhaps probability, of failure. At the same time, rewarding individuals for measured performance diminishes a sense of common purpose, as well as the social relationships that motivate co-operation and effectiveness. Instead, such rewards promote competition.
Compelling people in an organisation to focus their efforts on a narrow range of measurable features degrades the experience of work. Subject to performance metrics, people are forced to focus on limited goals, imposed by others who might not understand the work that they do.
The entrepreneurial element of human nature is stifled by metric fixation. Organisations in thrall to metrics end up motivating those members of staff with greater initiative to move out of the mainstream, where the culture of accountable performance prevails. Teachers move out of public schools to private and charter schools.
Engineers move out of large corporations to boutique firms. Enterprising government employees become consultants. There is a healthy element to this, of course. But surely the large-scale organisations of our society are the poorer for driving out staff most likely to innovate and initiate.Measuring performance of employees is the backbone of any organization’s management.
Business owners usually measure employee performance by assessing how much contribution the employee is making to the firm’s growth. Mapping Terminology Mapping (v).The act of determining how objects and their relationships are persisted in permanent data storage, in this case relational databases.
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