An introduction to the history of reconstruction

The original Northern objective in the Civil War was the preservation of the Union—a war aim with which virtually everybody in the free states agreed. As the fighting progressed, the Lincoln government Origins of Reconstruction The national debate over Reconstruction began during the Civil War.

An introduction to the history of reconstruction

That same year in Germany, engineer Konrad Zuse built his Z2 computer, also using telephone company relays. Their first product, the HP A Audio Oscillator, rapidly became a popular piece of test equipment for engineers.

Stibitz stunned the group by performing calculations remotely on the CNC located in New York City using a Teletype terminal connected via to New York over special telephone lines.

An introduction to the history of reconstruction

This is likely the first example of remote access computing. Konrad Zuse finishes the Z3 Computer The Zuse Z3 Computer The Z3, an early computer built by German engineer Konrad Zuse working in complete isolation from developments elsewhere, uses 2, relays, performs floating point binary arithmetic, and has a bit word length.

The Z3 was used for aerodynamic calculations but was destroyed in a bombing raid on Berlin in late Zuse later supervised a reconstruction of the Z3 in the s, which is currently on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich. Hundreds of allied bombes were built in order to determine the daily rotor start positions of Enigma cipher machines, which in turn allowed the Allies to decrypt German messages.

The basic idea for bombes came from Polish code-breaker Marian Rejewski's "Bomba. The machine was designed and built by Atanasoff and graduate student Clifford Berry between and The legal result was a landmark: Atanasoff was declared the originator of several basic computer ideas, but the computer as a concept was declared un-patentable and thus freely open to all.

The replica is currently on display at the Computer History Museum. Bell Labs Relay Interpolator is completed George Stibitz circa The US Army asked Bell Laboratories to design a machine to assist in testing its M-9 gun director, a type of analog computer that aims large guns to their targets.

Mathematician George Stibitz recommends using a relay-based calculator for the project. The Relay Interpolator used relays, and since it was programmable by paper tape, was used for other applications following the war.

The team first builds a large analog computer, but found it inaccurate and inflexible. After designers saw a demonstration of the ENIAC computer, they decided instead on a digital approach, while at the same time the project changed from a flight simulator to an air defense system.

A total of ten Colossi were delivered, each using as many as 2, vacuum tubes. A series of pulleys transported continuous rolls of punched paper tape containing possible solutions to a particular code.

Colossus reduced the time to break Lorenz messages from weeks to hours. Most historians believe that the use of Colossus machines significantly shortened the war by providing evidence of enemy intentions and beliefs.History of African Philosophy.

This article traces the history of systematic African philosophy from the early s to date. In Plato’s Theaetetus, Socrates suggests that philosophy begins with alphabetnyc.comtle agreed.

History of African Philosophy. This article traces the history of systematic African philosophy from the early s to date.

In Plato’s Theaetetus, Socrates suggests that philosophy begins with alphabetnyc.comtle agreed. From Revolution to Reconstruction and what happened afterwards.

An introduction to the history of reconstruction

A project on American History containing outlines of American History & Culture, sourcematerials, essays, biographies, presidential information.

The Civil War is the greatest trauma ever experienced by the American nation, a four-year paroxysm of violence that left in its wake more than , dead, more than 2 million refugees, and the destruction (in modern dollars) of more than $ billion in property.

The Z3, an early computer built by German engineer Konrad Zuse working in complete isolation from developments elsewhere, uses 2, relays, performs floating point binary arithmetic, and . Reconstruction, in U.S. history, the period (–77) that followed the American Civil War and during which attempts were made to redress the inequities of slavery and its political, social, and economic legacy and to solve the problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11 states that had seceded at or before the outbreak .

Eric Foner: American Historian