Thomas Pogge[ edit ] Thomas Pogge 's arguments pertain to a standard of social justice that creates human rights deficits.
The longer I live, work, and travel in Spain, the harder it is to believe that, less than a century ago, the entire country was torn apart by a bloody war. What set of circumstances could prompt a nation of ordinary, law-abiding people to explode into conflict and kill each other by the hundreds of thousands?
This, of course, is just a specific version of a more general question: Why do people wage wars?
I may so The Civil War was an appalling calamity in which every class and every party lost. Nevertheless I was somewhat hesitant to read it. Happily I was mistaken.
This does not mean it is accessible. Brenan chose his title well. The events leading up to the Spanish Civil War are intrinsically complex. So many different parties were involved in the accelerating dance of political turmoil that even the most skilled popular writer would have trouble seamlessly weaving it all together.
And Brenan, though a strong writer, was too close to the events described to even approach a popular account. As a result the book itself can feel labyrinthine—with valuable comments and data tucked away into footnotes, with several miniature appendices per chapter and a longer one at the end of the book, and a seemingly endless cast of characters, organizations, and movements.
Certainly this book, like any excellent book, will repay careful rereading. Orwell, who was in Spain a matter of months and who never learned Spanish very well, saw the Spanish Civil War in terms of the wider struggle between the Right and the Left. For him, it was a straightforward class conflict between the poor workers and the rich fascists, a struggle that was playing out all over the globe.
Brenan, on the other hand, who spoke fluent Spanish and who lived in Spain for decades, saw the war as a peculiarly Spanish affair; and his analysis focuses almost exclusively on internal factors.
Before the Civil War, political instability plagued Spain for generations. By the way, Spanish shepherds still hold onto their special privileges, which they demonstrate every year in the Fiesta de Transhumancia, during which sheep are herded straight through the center of Madrid.
The Church came to identify itself fully with the rich and powerful, alienating itself from the people. As a result, anti-clericalism has played nearly as big a role in Spanish history as the church itself.
During all this time, Spain was plagued by a long-standing agrarian crisis. Unfortunately, many regions of Spain are—either from lack of rain or inferior soil—rather poor for agriculture; and distinct social arrangements such as small-holding minifundios or large latifundios are appropriate for these different climatic conditions.
In the hot and dry south, for example, farms are usually quite large; and the work required is seasonal, not year-round. Since a small number of wealthy families controlled these large estates, the vast majority were left to subsist on badly-paid seasonal work, thus leading to inequality and violent political tension.
In addition to the inefficiency and inequality of Spanish agriculture, there was the ever-present problem of Spanish regionalism.
Brenan follows Richard Ford and Ortega y Gasset in seeing regionalism as one of the defining features of Spanish political life. Those watching the Catalan independence movement unfold today will be little disposed to disagree.
Spain is crisscrossed by several mountain ranges and sudden changes in elevation, thus leading to jarring climatic juxtaposition. I have experienced this myself: This is one culprit for the famous Spanish regionalism.
When Isabel and Fernando were married, thus uniting all of Spain for the first time, their separate kingdoms, Castile and Aragon, had distinct political traditions. As the historian J. The industrial revolution further fueled these regional tensions, as Bilbao and Barcelona became heavily industrialized while the interior and the south remained mainly agricultural.
These divisions in Spain—climatic, historical, and political—translated into splits in leftist movements in the years leading up to the Spanish Civil War. The fundamental split was between the socialists and the anarcho-syndicalists.
The socialists tended to be more reformist, while the anarcho-syndicalists were straightforwardly revolutionary. Each party had its associated union, respectively the U.
On the conservative side, in addition to the wealthy landowners and the Church—not to mention the army—there were the Monarchists and the Carlists.
The presence of Monarchists, in a country which still had a king living in exile, requires no explanation.What were the causes of the Spanish Civil War? Between and over , people were killed in the Spanish Civil War so this cannot be considered a ‘little’ war that was overshadowed by the problems that were occurring in Europe during these years.
In , Spain was a constitutional monarchy. The king was Alfonso XIII.
Spanish Civil War. Carlism Carlism is a political movement in Spain that looks to establish a separate line of the Bourbon family on the Spanish throne. This line is descended from Carlos V (–). 1) World War II, in both the East and the West, was the result of the inducement of the British, American[, and French] interest groups and syndicates, as well as the result of the scheme by Soviet Russia.
He is best known for The Spanish Labyrinth, a historical work on the background to the Spanish Civil War, and for South from Granada: Seven Years in an Andalusian Village.
He was awarded a CBE in the Diplomatic Service and Overseas List in /5. How did they try to fix it and how did they deal with unemployment? (Economic cost - Effects and results of the Spanish Civil War - Spain) Who emerged as dictator of Spain following the Spanish Civil War?
What did the regime declare? (Political effects - Effects and results of the Spanish Civil War - Spain) o Inequalities and iniquities. Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and alphabetnyc.com is measured by the explicit and tacit terms for the distribution of wealth, opportunities for personal activity, and social alphabetnyc.com Western as well as in older Asian cultures, the concept of social justice has often referred to the process of ensuring that individuals fulfill their societal.