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This article uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sourceswith multiple points of view. It begins among those people who occupied the area lying between the river Nile and Mesopotamia.
Surrounded by ancient seats of culture in Egypt and Babyloniaby the deserts of Arabiaand by the highlands of Asia Minorthe land of Canaan roughly corresponding to modern Israel, the Palestinian Territories, Jordan and Lebanon was a meeting place of civilizations. According to the Hebrew BibleJews descend from the ancient people of Israel who settled in the land of Canaan between the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.
Hecht Museum The Book of Genesis, chapters 25—50, tells the story of Jacob and his twelve sons, who left Canaan during a severe famine and settled in Goshen of northern Egypt.
The Egyptian Pharaonic government allegedly enslaved their descendants, although there is no independent evidence of this having occurred. According to the Bible, the Hebrews miraculously emigrated out of Egypt an event known as the Exodusand returned to their ancestral homeland in Canaan.
According to the Bible, after their emancipation from Egyptian slavery, the people of Israel wandered around and lived in the Sinai desert for a span of forty years before conquering Canaan in BCE under the command of Joshua.
After entering Canaan, portions of the land were given to each of the twelve tribes of Israel. However, archaeology reveals a different story of the origins of the Jewish people: The archaeological evidence of the largely indigenous origins of Israel in Canaan, not Egypt, is "overwhelming" and leaves "no room for an Exodus from Egypt or a year pilgrimage through the Sinai wilderness".
Almost the sole marker distinguishing the "Israelite" villages from Canaanite sites is an absence of pig bones, although whether this can be taken as an ethnic marker or is due to other factors remains a matter of dispute.
During the reign of David, the already existing city of Jerusalem became the national and spiritual capital of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Upon his death, a civil war erupted between the ten northern Israelite tribes, and the tribes of Judah Simeon was absorbed into Judah and Benjamin in the south.
The nation split into the Kingdom of Israel in the north, and the Kingdom of Judah in the south. No commonly accepted historical record accounts for the ultimate fate of the ten northern tribes, sometimes referred to as the Ten Lost Tribes of Israelalthough speculation abounds.
Babylonian captivity Deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon's temple After revolting against the new dominant power and an ensuing siege, the Kingdom of Judah was conquered by the Babylonian army in BCE and the First Temple was destroyed.
The elite of the kingdom and many of their people were exiled to Babylon, where the religion developed outside their traditional temple. Others fled to Egypt. After the fall of Jerusalem, Babylonia modern day Iraqwould become the focus of Judaism for more than a thousand years.
The two most famous academies were the Pumbedita Academy and the Sura Academy. Major yeshivot were also located at Nehardea and Mahuza. After a few generations and with the conquest of Babylonia in BC by the Persian Empiresome adherents led by prophets Ezra and Nehemiahreturned to their homeland and traditional practices.
Other Judeans  did not permanently return and remained in exile and developed somewhat independently outside of the Land of Israel, especially following the Muslim conquests of the Middle East in the 7th century CE.
After the death of the last Jewish prophet and while still under Persian rule, the leadership of the Jewish people passed into the hands of five successive generations of zugot "pairs of" leaders.
They flourished first under the Persians and then under the Greeks. As a result, the Pharisees and Sadducees were formed. After his demise, and the division of Alexander's empire among his generals, the Seleucid Kingdom was formed.
Greek culture was spread eastwards by the Alexandrian conquests. The Levant was not immune to this cultural spread. During this time, currents of Judaism were influenced by Hellenistic philosophy developed from the 3rd century BCE, notably the Jewish diaspora in Alexandriaculminating in the compilation of the Septuagint.
An important advocate of the symbiosis of Jewish theology and Hellenistic thought is Philo. Hasmonean dynasty A deterioration of relations between hellenized Jews and orthodox Jews led the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes to impose decrees banning certain Jewish religious rites and traditions.
Consequently, the orthodox Jews revolted under the leadership of the Hasmonean family also known as the Maccabees. The people, who did not want to be governed by a king but by theocratic clergy, made appeals in this spirit to the Roman authorities.
A Roman campaign of conquest and annexation, led by Pompeysoon followed. Roman expansion was going on in other areas as well, and would continue for more than a hundred and fifty years.alphabetnyc.com The History of Jewish Human Sacrifice. By Willie Martin.
At the dawn of civilization, the blood rite, in which human blood is drunk. Israel History Maps is a geographical chronology of Jewish sovereignty in Israel and is the result of a unique project intended on providing the reader with a knowledge base and visual introduction to the history of the Jewish people in Israel.
Bulgaria, an east Balkan republic located along the Black Sea, can trace its Jewish community back to the time of Caligula in the first century CE. Today, the Jewish population of Bulgaria is approximately 2, people. A Jewish settlement is known to have existed in Macedonia in the time of.
Judaism, monotheistic religion developed among the ancient alphabetnyc.comm is characterized by a belief in one transcendent God who revealed himself to Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions.
Judaism is the complex phenomenon of a total way of life for the Jewish people, comprising theology, law, and innumerable. On 4 June , Canada belatedly signed the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 18 years after it was adopted by the United Nations, and 15 years after it entered into force.
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